I. NAME OF THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE.
 
Sikhote-Alin State Nature Zapovednik.
II. COUNTRY.
 
The Russian Federation.

692150, Primorsky Krai, Terney, Partizanskaya St., 46

Email: sixote@vld.global-one.ru

III. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE.

LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE.
 

44 grad 46' - 45 grad 45' Nod, 135 grad 48' - 136 grad 35' East.
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL REGION.
 
Manchurian Japanese Mixed Forest (2.14.05).
TOPOGRAPHY OF THE REGION.
 
The reserve is situated in the central eastern part of Sikhote-Alin which is represented by a complex system of mountain ranges, where plain occur for less 5% of the territory.
CLIMATE.
 
The reserve is situated in the Coastal climatic region of the Far Eastern temperate zone. The reserve is influenced by East Asian monsoons. Its climate is characterized by dry, cold winters (-20 dg Celsius and 90-140 days without frosts) and moderately hot summers. The average annual rainfall is 788 mm, and precipitation varies seasonally (up to 1100 mm), the greater part occurring in the summer. Winds are a characteristic feature of the climate: in summer, weak southern and south-eastern winds bring either fogs or overcast weather; in winter, northern and north-western winds are dry, cold and very violent; along the coast storms and typhoons are frequent.
GEOLOGY, GEOMORPHOLOGY, SOILS.
 
The reserve is situated in the geosynclinal system which includes the main synclinal (Mz), the Coastal anticlinal (Kz) and the main anticlinal (Pz). Four altitude levels are present in the reserve relief: the level of moderately high mountains (an altitude of 700-1100 m); the level of low mountains (an altitude of 300-800 m); the level of quaternary terraces (an altitude of 60-70 m). The following basic types of soils are present in the reserve: CMe, CMd, CMg, PDd, PDe, PDg, PZh, PZb, PZc, DLd, HSs (FAO system, 1990).
SIGNIFICANCE FOR CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: HABITATS AND CHARACTERISTIC SPECIES.

TYPE OF HABITAT:
 

Oak forests, conifer-broad-leaved forests, and coniferous forests.
MAIN SPECIES:

PLANTS:
 

  • Picea ajanensis
  • Abies nephrolepis
  • Pinus koraensis
  • Larix dahuricus
  • Quercus mongolica
  • Tilia amurensis
  • Betula mandshurica
  • Betula platyphylla
  • Betula lanata
  • Betula costata
  • Betula dahurica
  • Chosenia arbutifolia
  • Populus maximoviczii
  • Populus davidiana
  • Fraxinus mandshurica
  • Ulmus laciniata
  • Ulmus propinqia.
  • ANIMALS:
     
  • Sorex coecutiens
  • Myotis daubentoni
  • Plecotus auritus
  • Caprolagus brachyurus
  • Lepus timidus
  • Pteromys volans
  • Sciurus vulgaris
  • Apodemus peninculae
  • Clethrionomus rufocanus
  • Clethrionomus rutilus
  • Ursus thibetanus
  • Ursus arctors
  • Martes zibellina
  • Martes flavigula
  • Mustella sibirica
  • Mustella vison
  • Panthera tigris
  • Sus scrofa
  • Moschus moschiferus
  • Cervus elaphus
  • Capreolus capreolus
  • Histrionicus histrionicus
  • Tetrastes bonasia
  • Apus pacificus
  • Alauda arvensis
  • Acrocephalus bistrigicepsi
  • Phylloscopus inornatus
  • Parus palustris
  • Parus ater
  • Sitta europaea
  • Emberiza elegans
  • Emberiza spodocephala
  • Nucifraga caryocataetes
  • Cornus corone
  • Corvus macrorhynchos
  • Corvus corax
  • MAIN HUMAN IMPACT:
     
    The main human impacts in the Sikhote-Alin reserve are poaching and forest fires.
    RELEVANT HABITAT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES:
     
    Fire prevention, maintenance of hay fields within the reserve.
    HABITATS OF SPECIAL INTEREST:
     
    Pine-spruce woods with Rhododendron faurici; rocky ecosystems (habitats of Nemorhaedus coudatus); meadow-birch-oak association (habitats for the majority of ungulate species); stepped meadow; yew groves.
    ENDANGERED OR THREATENED PLANT OR ANIMAL SPECIES.

    PLANTS:
     

    ANIMALS:
      SPECIES OF TRADITIONAL OR COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE:
     

    Terney. The Serebryanka river.

    IV. ZONATION

    NAMES OF DIFFERENT AREAS

    INDICATE THE NAMES OF THE DIFFERENT AREAS WHICH MAKE UP THE CORE AREA(S) AND BUFFER ZONE(S)
     

    Core Areas: Terneyskiy section, Kuruminskiy section, Kolumbeyskiy section, Prybregeniy section.
    ALSO INDICATE THE APPROXIMATE EXTENT OF THE TRANSITION AREA(S).
     
    Size of terrestrial Core Area(s): 387 284 ha.

    If appropriate, size of marine Core Area(s) 2 900 ha.

    Size of terrestrial Buffer Zone(s) 65 250 ha.

    If appropriate, size of marine Buffer Zone(s) 5 100 ha.

    Approx. size of terrestrial Transition Area(s) (if applicable) ~ 4 000 000 ha.
    BRIEF JUSTIFICATION OF THIS ZONATION.
     
    The core Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Reserve area is the area sized from the economic use in 1935. Since that time protection and studying natural and minimum disturbed unique landscapes and biota, representative for this biogeographical region, have been fulfilled. The buffer zone around the reserve core area was established after Primorsky krai Executive Committee adopted the Decree number 651 on August, 11, 1975 and readopted by Primorsky krai Governor's Decree number 93 on March, 5, 1997. The buffer zone size and regime, mainly, meet the Biosphere Reserve buffer zone requirements. The transition zone conception and its size were worked out by the Pacific Institute of Geography (Russian Federation Academy of Sciences). It comprises the area, typical to the anthropogenic impacting the Russian Far East environment.
    V. HUMAN ACTIVITIES.

    POPULATION LIVING IN THE RESERVE:
     

    Permanently Seasonally Core Area ---- ----

    Buffer Zone ---- 20

    Transition Area 75 000

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES LIVING WITHIN OR NEAR THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE.
      INDICATE ETHNIC ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION, MINORITIES ETC., THEIR MAIN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES (E. G. PASTORALISM) AND THE LOCATION OF THEIR MAIN AREAS OF CONCENTRATION, WITH REFERENCE TO A MAP IF APPROPRIATE.
     
    At the Beginning of the XIX-th Century, this area was populated by emigrants from the western regions of Russia and Siberia. The main economic activities in the Transition Area are timber logging industry, fishing, mining, chemical industry and metallurgy.
    NAME OF NEAREST MAJOR TOWNS:
     
    - Vladivostok (~600 km to the Reserve),
    - Khabarovsk (~700 km to the Reserve).
    USE OR ACTIVITIES IN THE CORE AREA.
     
    Only nature conservation, scientific research and ecological education.
    MAIN LAND USES AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFER ZONE.
     
    Only sport fishing and hunting, scientific research, education and ecotourism.
    MAIN LAND USES AND MAJOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN TRANSITION AREA.
     
    Cattle farming, timber logging industry, mining, fishing and hunting, chemical industry, metallurgy.
    POSSIBLE ADVERSE EFFECT OF USES OR ACTIVITIES IN THE TRANSITION AREA AND REMEDIAL MEASURES TAKEN:
     
    Possible transportation with precipitation Pb, Cd, SO2, SO3, NO2 into the Core Area and Buffer Zone in spring and early summer from Dalnegorsk.
    IF KNOWN, GIVE A BRIEF SUMMARY OF PAST/HISTORICAL LAND USE(S) ON THE MAIN PARTS OF THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE.
     
    Populating the Reserve area began in late the 19th early XX century by settlers from the western regions of Russia. All the first settlements were built in the coastal area. Mining metal ores was started at the beginning of the XX-th century (mostly lead). At the same time logging (mostly coniferous species) was undertaken in the river valleys. But as far as there were no roads and sea transportation wasn't well developed, the logged timber remained out in the forest. Since the beginning of the XX-th century till the 50's coastal fishery had been well developed. Establishing the Reserve in 1935 with the area of 1,7 million hectares stopped any economic use of the vast forest areas for a long time, But in the 50's its area was reduced to 110,000 hectares and this fact influenced negatively on the nature complexes. Lots of mines were opened, big forest areas were logged, new settlements were built. In the 70's enlarging the Reserve area 330000 hectares let the Reserve to get back the ecosystems which were partially disturbed (logging, fires).
    TOURISM. IF TOURISM IS A MAJOR ACTIVITY, HOW MANY VISITORS COME TO THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE EACH YEAR?
     
    Tourism isn't a major activity.
    TYPE(S) OF TOURIST ACTIVITY.
     
    Study of fauna and flora in the Core Area; sports fishing and hunting in the Buffer Zone and Transition Area.
    TOURIST FACILITIES AND DESCRIPTION OF WHERE THEY ARE LOCATED.

    INCOME AND BENEFITS TO LOCAL COMMUNITIES.

    INDICATE FOR THE ACTIVITIES DESCRIBED ABOVE WHETHER THE LOCAL COMMUNITIES DERIVE ANY INCOME DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY AND THROUGH MECHANISM.
     

    Local communities derive income indirectly through taxes.
    VI. RESEARCH AND MONITORING PROGRAMS.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION AND LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF PAST RESEARCH AND/OR MONITORING ACTIVITIES.
     

  • L.G.Kaplanov. Tiger.Elk.Moose. (in Russian). Moscow, 1948, 128 pp.
  • V.V.Vetrennikov. The geology of the Sikhote-Alin Reserve and the Central Sikhote-Alin ridge. (in Russian). Vladivostok, 1976, 167 pp.
  • B.P.Kolesnikov. The vegetation of the eastern slopes of the middle Sikhote-Alin. (in Russian, with English summaries)// In Transactions  of the Sikhote-Alin State Reserve, v.I, Moscow, 1938, pp. 25-207
  • Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Region. Principles and methods of ecological monitoring. (In Russian), Vladivostok, 1981, 148 pp.
  • Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Region. Condition of natural ecosystems. (In Russian), Vladivostok, 1987, 144 pp.
  • Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Region. Ecological research. (In Russian), Vladivostok, 1985, 156 pp.
  • Vegetation and animals of the Sikhote-Alin Reserve. (In Russian), Moscow, Nauka, 1982, 304 pp.
  • I.Phlagina. Natural regeneration in korean pine forests on the east slopes of the SikhoteAlin. (In Russian), Vladivostok, 1982, 177 pp.
  • The conservation of natural ecosystems in the Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Reserve. (In Russian), Vladivostok, 1985, 153 pp.
  • Ecological research in the Sikhote-Alin Reserve (oak forests). (In Russian), Moscow, 1990, 176 pp.
  • V. Sukhanov, B. Petropavlovsky, Chavtur. The structure of vegetative communities in the Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Reserve. (In Russian), Vladivostok, 1994, 220 pp.
  • A. Myslenkov, I. Volshina. Ecology and behavior of Amour goral. Russian, Moscow, Nauka, 128 pp.
  • A. Myslenkov (Edit). Amour goral (In Russian). Moscow, 1992, 166 pp.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF ON-GOING RESEARCH AND/OR MONITORING ACTIVITIES.

    ABIOTIC RESEARCH AND MONITORING.

    - monitoring present geological processes; - monitoring climate; - research of concentrations of metals in soil and vegetation.
    BIOTIC RESEARCH AND MONITORING.
     
    - inventory and reinventory of Reserve's fauna and flora;
    - long-term monitoring of abundance of animals and plants (common and rare);
    - research of dynamic structure populations of soil animal in the forest ecosystems after fire's resistance;
    - research of dynamic structure and succession of forest ecosystems;
    - long-term monitoring of the soil decomposition in the forest;
    - research of ungulates populationstructure;
    - monitoring of hydrobios's (benthonic) abundance and structure of species in polluted rivers.
    SOCIO-ECONOMIC RESEARCH.
     
    No research.
    ESTIMATED NUMBER OF NATIONAL SCIENTISTS PARTICIPATION IN RESEARCH WITHIN THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE ON PERMANENT OR OCCASIONAL BASIS.
     
    15-20 national scientists a year.
    ESTIMATED NUMBER OF FOREIGN SCIENTISTS.
     
    6-12 foreign scientists a year.
    RESEARCH STATIONS WITHIN THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE.
     
    11 field research stations within the Reserve.
    PERMANENT RESEARCH STATION(S) OUTSIDE THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE.
     
    2 field stations outside the Reserve.
    RESEARCH FACILITIES OF RESEARCH STATION(S)(METEOROLOGICAL AND/OR HYDROLOGICAL STATION, EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS, LABORATORY, LIBRARY, VEHICLES, COMPUTERS ETC...).
     
    Experimental plots: flora vascular - 33; fauna - 47; geology - 4; soil - 8; antropogenic - 2. Library, vehicles, herbarium, bird collection, osteal mammal collection, computer GIS and information center.
    OTHER FACILITIES.
     
    The Reserve has facilities for lodging and overnight for scientists on the field stations and a small hotel in Terney, and places in office of Reserve for work.
    INDICATE HOW RESULTS OF RESEARCH PROGRAMS HAVE BEEN TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE.
     
    The results of research programs have been taken for increasing territory of Core Area and changing (modifying) the Buffer Zone boundaries.

    The salt lake Blagodatnoe and the Oudobnaya bay. Computer reconstruction.

    VII. EDUCATION, TRAINING AND PUBLIC AWARENESS PROGRAMMES.

    ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND PUBLIC AWARENESS.
     

    - ecology at lessons at local schools;
    - lectures on environmental protection in other organizations and enterprises;
    - publications in the newspapers and journals; - report on TV and Radio;
    - ecological excursions;
    - ecology club for schoolchildren;
    - ecological exhibitions.
    TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR SPECIALISTS.
     
    - training programs for specialists of the Russian Far East Reserves on the methods of bird research, creating computer databases, GIS.
    INDICATE WHETHER THERE ARE FACILITIES FOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES, AS WELL AS VISITOR'S CENTERS FOR THE PUBLIC.
     
    Constructing visitor's centers and environmental education center (museum) has been stopped because of lack of financial resources. The two-storey building of the new museum has been constructed and roofed, however, the inside facilities are not ready yet.
    INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS.

    STATE, PROVINCE, REGION OR OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS.
     

    Terneyskiy, Dalnegorskiy and Krasnoarmeyskiy Districts. Primorskiy krai Russian Federation.
    MANAGEMENT PLAN/POLICY.

    INDICATE IF A MANAGEMENT PLAN OR POLICY EXISTS FOR THE OVERALL BIOSPHERE RESERVE.
     

    Yes, only for overall Core Area and Buffer Zone.
    IF YES, BRIEFLY DESCRIBE THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS PLAN AND PRECISE THE MODEL OF APPLICATION.
     
    - increasing the territory of Core Area and modifying Buffer Zone boundaries;
    - organizing the Biosphere Polygon - joint management hunting resources together with Primokhota, Terneyskiy and Malnichniy forest services with Buffer Zones;
    - clearing and constructing new anti fire paths and ways, helicopter landing plots, anti fire breaches;
    - reorganization section of protection;
    - development of the three main directions of research and monitoring:
    - research of structural organization, functioning and dynamic of natural ecosystems of the Reserve;
    - studying the ecosystem state, including rare plant and animal species, working methods of their conservation and restoration;
    - global environmental monitoring;
    - supplementing and creating new databases about the Reserve nature components;
    - creating the Reserve geoinformation system;
    - creating the District Ecological Center of the Reserve.
    AUTHORITY IN CHARGE OF ADMINISTRATION OF THE WHOLE, I. E. OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THIS PLAN/POLICY:
     
    Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Reserve Director A. Astafiev.
    TOTAL NUMBER OF STAFF IN BIOSPHERE RESERVE.
     
    Number 71.
    FINANCIAL SOURCE(S) AND YEARLY BUDGET.

    INDICATE THE SOURCE AND THE RELATIVE PERCENTAGE OF THE FUNDING (E. G. FROM NATIONAL, REGIONAL, LOCAL ADMINISTRATIONS, PRIVATE FUNDING, INTERNATIONAL SOURCES ETC.) AND THE ESTIMATED YEARLY BUDGET IN THE NATIONAL CURRENCY.
     

    From national - 29.9%

    From regional - 2.4%

    From international sources - 62.3%

    From WWF Russia - 4.0%

    From other sources - 1.4%

    In 1996 the estimated yearly budget was 2,355,909,000 Rubles.

    AUTHORITY IN CHARGE OF ADMINISTRATION OF EACH ZONE.

    CORE AREA.
     

    - the Reserve administration.
    BUFFER ZONE.
     
    - the Reserve administration;
    - the Local administration;
    - the Forest services administration.
    MECHANISMS OF CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION AMONG THERE DIFFERENT AUTHORITIES.
     
    - joint meeting;
    - power delimitation.
    WHERE APPROPRIATE, NATIONAL (OF STATE OR PROVINCIAL) ADMINISTRATIONS TO WHICH THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE REPORTS.
     
    The Russian Federation Federal Environment Protection Committee.
    MECHANISM FOR CONSULTATION OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES.

    HAVE BEEN ASSOCIATED TO THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE NOMINATION.
     

    The local population have not been associated to the Biosphere Reserve nomination.
    PARTICIPATE TO THE DECISION PROCESS AND MANAGEMENT RESOURCES.
     
    - The local population has been actively associated to working out plans on establishing the strictly protected areas and logging in the area's forest.
    - The local population takes an active efficient part in the Reserve area and its Buffer Zone extension planning;
    PROTECTION REGIME OF THE CORE AREA AND POSSIBLY OF THE BUFFER ZONE.
     
    - Yes, fully.
    INDICATE THE TYPE (E. G. UNDER NATIONAL LEGISLATION AND DATE SINCE WHEN THE LEGAL PROTECTION CAME INTO BEING AND PROVIDE JUSTIFYING DOCUMENTS (WITH ENGLISH OR FRENCH SUMMARY OF THE MAIN FEATURES)).
     
    Core Area - strictly protection regime since 1935. The All - Union Central Executive Committee and Russian Federation People's Commissars Council Decree "On establishing the network of absolute total state significance Reserves", February, 10, 1935. Buffer Zone - strict protection regime since 1975. Primorskiy krai Governor's Decree Number 93 on March, 5, 1997 "On the Sikhote-Alin Biosphere State Nature Reserve Buffer Zone".
    LAND TENURE OF EACH ZONE.

    PERCENTAGE OF OWNERSHIP IN TERMS OF NATIONAL, STATE/PROVINCIAL, LOCAL GOVERNMENT, PRIVATE, ETC...
     

    Core Area: national ownership - 100%;
    Buffer Zone: national ownership - 100%;
    Transition Area: national ownership, provincial management.
    FORESEEN CHANGES IN LAND TENURE.
     
    Is not supposed to be.
    IS THERE A LAND ACQUISITION PROGRAMME, TO PURCHASE PRIVATE LAND, OR PLANS FOR PRIVATIZATION OF PUBLIC LANDS?
     
    There is a program of the Reserve area restoration till the borders which existed in 1935. There are coordinated documents on adding 11,244 ha to the core area. In 1997, according to this plan the Buffer Zone area has been increased.
    VIII. CONCLUSION.

    DOES THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE HAVE COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES WITH OTHER BIOSPHERE RESERVES (EXCHANGES OF INFORMATION AND PERSONNEL, JOINT PROGRAMMES, ETC...).

    AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL:
     

    Exchanges of information and joint programs through Goscompriroda of Russian Federation, the Reserve Department Service and the workshops of different levels.
    THROUGH TWINNING AND/OR TRANSBOUNDARY BIOSPHERE RESERVES:
     
    There were attempts undertaken to establish direct contacts with the sister Biosphere USA Reserves Olympic (correspondence) and Hubbard Brook (personal contacts with Sikhote-Alin Reserve).
    WITHIN THE WORLD NETWORK (INCLUDING REGIONAL NETWORKS):
    The information exchange within the European Biosphere Reserve network.