The Ecology of the Amur Tiger based on Long-Term Winter Observations in 1970-1973 in the Western Sector of the Central Sikhote-Alin Mountains

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By Anatoliy Grigorievitch Yudakov and Igor Georgievitch Nikolaev.


Institute of Biology and Soil Science
Far-Eastern Scientific Center
Academy of Sciences of the USSR



Translated to English by Katharine Lofdahl and Alexander Shevlakov (co-translator), 2004.


Copyright, A. G. Yudakov and I. G. Nikolaev



Copyright, K. Lofdahl,š A. Shevlakov, English translation, 2004.



Published in Russian in 1987 in Moscow by Nauka Publishers.
Editor-in-Chief: E. N Matyushkin




Abstract
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This monograph reports the results of field studies of the ecology and behavior of the Amur tiger--a rare subspecies that is under threat of extinction and that is included in the Red Data Books of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, of the USSR, and of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic.
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For the first time, the movements of tigers are characterized in detail based on long-term winter tracking of tiger footprints in a permanent study site in the Central Sikhote-Alin Mountains for tigers that varied in sex, in age, and in the types and structures of their territories.š The spatial structure of the population of this species in the area under investigation was clarified.š The role of snow cover in the life of the tiger and other problems of its winter ecology are clarified.š Information is also provided on the behavior of tigers when they encounter people.
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This book is intended for zoologists, specialists in nature conservation and wildlife management, and also for a broad spectrum of readers.


Table of Contents:
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Preface
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From the Author
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Chapter 1:š Tasks and Methods for Field Studies.
Nature of the Resulting Data.

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Chapter 2:š Distribution and Population Size of Tigers in
Primorskii Krai at the Beginning of the 1970s.
Selection of an Area for Long-Term Research

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Chapter 3:š A Physiographic Characterization of the
Study Region and the Nature of its Economic Development

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Chapter 4:š Populations of Ungulates and Predatory Mammals at the Long-Term Study Site
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Chapter 5:š Grouping of Tigers in the Long-Term Study Site in the Past and During the Period of our Investigations
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Chapter 6:š Characteristics of the Tigers' Movements.
Size and Structure of their Territories

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Chapter 7:š Spatial Distribution of Territories
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Chapter 8:š Daily Travel Distance and 24-Hour Activity Rhythm
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Chapter 9:š Tigers' Routes, Their Dependence on Natural and
Anthropogenic Factors

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Chapter 10:š Long-Term Resting Sites and Lairs of the Tigers
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Chapter 11:š Marking Behavior: Forms and Frequency
of Appearance in Different Contexts

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Chapter 12:š Hunting Behavior and Success of the
Tigers' Hunts

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Chapter 13:š General Features of Diet.š Influence on Prey Populations.
Competitors and Scavengers

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Chapter 14:š Behavior of Tigers in Relation to Humans
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Conclusion
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References